Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. The Company’s fiscal year end is December 31 and, unless otherwise stated, all years and dates refer to the fiscal year.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”) and pursuant to the regulations of the U.S Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with US GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC. The condensed consolidated financial statements include the Company’s accounts and those of its subsidiaries. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. In the opinion of the Company’s management, the financial information for the interim periods presented reflects all adjustments, which are of a normal and recurring nature, necessary for a fair statement of the Company’s financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. The results reported in these condensed consolidated financial statements are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for the entire year. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 31, 2022.
The Company’s reporting currency is the U.S. Dollar, while the functional currencies of its foreign subsidiaries are their respective local currencies. The effect of foreign currency translation was immaterial for all periods presented.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Management’s significant estimates include allowance for doubtful accounts, reserve for excess and obsolete inventory, fair value of contingent earnout liability, fair value of earnout share awards, fair value of the private placement warrant liability and assumptions in revenue recognition. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount and do not bear interest. An allowance for doubtful accounts is provided for those accounts receivable considered to be uncollectible based on management’s assessment of the collectability of the accounts receivable which considers historical write-off experience and any specific risks identified in customer collection matters.
The following presents the changes in the balance of the Company’s allowance for doubtful accounts:
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company is required to provide information according to the fair value hierarchy based on the observability of the inputs used in the valuation techniques. The fair value hierarchy ranks the quality and reliability of the information used to determine fair values. Financial assets and liabilities carried at fair value will be classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:
The following table presents information about the Company’s assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 and indicates the fair value hierarchy of the valuation:
The Company remeasures its Common Stock Warrants (as defined below) and Private Placement Warrants (as defined below) at fair value at each reporting period using Level 3 inputs via the Black-Scholes option-pricing model and Binomial Lattice Model, respectively. The valuation of the earnout shares is based on a Monte Carlo simulation. The significant assumptions used in preparing the above models are disclosed in Note 12 Stock Warrants and Note 11 Earnout. All Silicon Valley Bank ("SVB") warrants were exercised in June 2021. There were no transfers between levels during the periods presented.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments which potentially expose the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents held on deposit at one financial institution and accounts receivable. The Company does not require collateral from customers for amounts owed. At March 31, 2022, one customer represented 12% of the accounts receivable balance and at December 31, 2021 no one customer represented greater than 10% of the accounts receivable balance. For the three months ended March 31, 2022, one customer represented 11% of the total revenue. For the three months ended March 31, 2021, no one customer represented more than 10% of total revenue. Historically, the Company has not experienced any significant credit loss related to any individual customer.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company evaluates whether events or circumstances have occurred that indicate that the estimated remaining useful life of its long-lived assets may warrant reassessment or that the carrying value of these assets may not be recoverable. When a triggering event is identified, management assesses the recoverability of the asset group, which is the lowest level where identifiable cash flows are largely independent, by comparing the expected undiscounted cash flows of the asset group to the carrying value. When the carrying value is not recoverable and an impairment is determined to exist, the asset group is written down to fair value. The Company did not identify any triggering events or record any impairment during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.
Sales and Marketing
Advertising costs, a component of sales and marketing expenses, were $1.0 million during the three months ended March 31, 2022, respectively, compared to $1.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021.
Substantially all of the Company’s hardware products are covered by a standard assurance warranty of one year. In the event of a failure of a product covered by this warranty, the Company may repair or replace the product, at its option. The Company’s warranty reserve reflects estimated material and labor costs for potential or actual product issues for which the Company expects to incur an obligation. The Company periodically assesses the appropriateness of the warranty reserve and adjusts the amount as necessary. If the data used to calculate the appropriateness of the warranty reserve are not indicative of future requirements, additional or reduced warranty reserves may be necessary.
Warranty reserves are included within accrued expenses on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. The following table presents changes in the balance of the Company’s warranty reserve:
Warranty reserve is recorded through cost of revenue in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
The Company determines its chief operating decision maker (“CODM”) based on the person responsible for making resource allocation decisions. Operating segments are components of the business for which the CODM regularly reviews discrete financial information. The Company manages its operations as a single segment for the purposes of assessing performance and making operating decisions.
Common Stock Warrant Liabilities
The Company assumed 5,374,984 publicly-traded warrants (“Public Warrants”) and 3,150,000 private placement warrants originally issued by AONE (“Private Placement Warrants” and, together with the Public Warrants, the “Common Stock Warrants”) upon the Merger, all of which were issued in connection with AONE’s initial public offering and subsequent overallotment and entitle the holder to purchase one share of the Common Stock at an exercise price of $11.50 per share. The Common Stock Warrants became
exercisable the later of 30 days after the Company completed the Merger or 12 months from the closing of AONE’s initial public offering, but can be terminated on the earlier of 5 years after the Merger, liquidation of the Company, or the Redemption Date as determined by the Company. During the three months ended March 31, 2022, no Public Warrants or Private Placement Warrants were exercised. The Public Warrants are publicly traded and are exercisable for cash unless certain conditions occur which would permit a cashless exercise, such as the failure to have an effective registration statement related to the shares issuable upon exercise or redemption by the Company under certain conditions. The Private Placement Warrants are not redeemable for cash so long as they are held by the initial purchasers or their permitted transferees but may be redeemable for common stock if certain other conditions are met. If the Private Placement Warrants are held by someone other than the initial purchasers or their permitted transferees, the Private Placement Warrants are redeemable by the Company and exercisable by such holders on the same basis as the Public Warrants.
The Company evaluated the Public Warrants and Private Placement Warrants and concluded that the Private Placement Warrants do not meet the criteria to be classified within stockholders’ equity. The agreement governing the Common Stock Warrants includes a provision that, if applied, could result in a different settlement value for the Private Placement Warrants depending on their holder. Because the holder of an instrument is not an input into the pricing of a fixed-for-fixed option on the Company’s ordinary shares, the Private Placement Warrants are not considered to be “indexed to the Company’s own stock.” As the Private Placement Warrants meet the definition of a derivative, the Company recorded these warrants as liabilities on the consolidated balance sheet at fair value, with subsequent changes in their respective fair values recognized in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) at each reporting date as part of change in fair value of derivative liabilities, as described in Note 12. The provisions referenced above are not applicable to the Public Warrants which do not have differing settlement provisions based on the warrant holder. The Public Warrants are not precluded from being considered indexed to the Company’s stock and were recognized at fair value in stockholders’ equity on the closing of the Merger.
Contingent Earnout Liability
In connection with the Reverse Recapitalization and pursuant to the Merger Agreement, A-Star, the sponsor of AONE (the "Sponsor") surrendered 2,610,000 shares ("Sponsor Earnout Shares") and eligible Markforged equity holders were entitled to receive as additional merger consideration 14,666,667 shares of the Company’s Common Stock ("Markforged Earnout Shares") upon the Company achieving certain Earnout Triggering Events (as described in the Merger Agreement and Note 11). The contingent obligations to issue Markforged Earnout Shares in respect of Markforged common stock and release from lock-up Sponsor Earnout Shares, are accounted for as liability classified instruments in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification Topic 815-40, as the Earnout Triggering Events that determine the number of Sponsor and Markforged Earnout Shares required to be released or issued, as the case may be, include events that are not solely indexed to the fair value of common stock of Markforged. The liability was recognized at the reverse recapitalization date and is subsequently remeasured at each reporting date with changes in fair value recorded in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Markforged Earnout Shares issuable to employees with vested equity awards and Earnout RSUs (as described in the Merger Agreement) issuable to employees with unvested equity awards are considered a separate unit of account from the Markforged Earnout Shares issuable in respect of Markforged common stock and are accounted for as equity classified stock compensation. The Earnout Shares issuable to employees with vested equity awards are fully vested upon issuance, thus there is no requisite service period and the value of these shares is recognized as a one-time stock compensation expense for the grant date fair value. Earnout RSUs are contingent upon an employee completing a service vesting condition, and as such, reflect a transaction in which the Company acquires employee services by offering to issue its shares, the amount of which is based in part on the Company’s share price. Expense related to Earnout RSUs is recognized using graded vesting over the requisite service period for the Earnout RSUs.
The estimated fair values of the Sponsor Earnout Shares, Markforged Earnout Shares, and Earnout RSUs were determined by using a Monte Carlo simulation valuation model using a distribution of potential outcomes on a monthly basis over the five-year Earnout Period as defined in Note 11. The preliminary estimated fair values of Sponsor Earnout Shares, Markforged Earnout Shares, and Earnout RSUs were determined using the most reliable information available, including the current Company Common Stock price, expected volatility, risk-free rate, expected term and dividend rate.
The contingent earnout liability is categorized as a Level 3 fair value measurement (see Fair Value of Financial Instruments accounting policy as described above) because the Company estimated projections during the Earnout Period utilizing unobservable inputs. Contingent earnout payments involve certain assumptions requiring significant judgment and actual results can differ from assumed and estimated amounts.
Prior to January 1, 2022, the Company accounted for leases in accordance with FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) ASC 840, Leases. At lease inception, the Company determined if an arrangement was an operating or capital lease. For operating leases, the Company recognized rent expense, inclusive of rent escalations, on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Effective on January 1, 2022, the Company accounts for leases in accordance with ASC Topic 842, Leases (“ASC 842”). In accordance with ASC 842, the Company determines whether an arrangement is or contains a lease at inception. A contract is or contains a lease if the contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. The Company classifies leases at the lease commencement date, when control of the underlying asset is transferred from the lessor to the lessee, as operating or finance leases and records a right-of-use (“ROU”) asset and a lease liability on the consolidated balance sheet for all leases with an initial lease term of greater than 12 months. The Company has elected to not recognize leases with a lease term of 12 months or less on the balance sheet and will recognize lease payments for such short-term leases as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
The Company enters into contracts that contain both lease and non-lease components. Non-lease components may include maintenance, utilities, and other operating costs. For leases of real estate, the Company combines the lease and associated non-lease components in its lease arrangements as a single lease component. Variable costs, such as utilities or maintenance costs, are not included in the measurement of right-of-use assets and lease liabilities, but rather are expensed when the event determining the amount of variable consideration to be paid occurs.
Finance and operating lease assets and liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the present value of the lease payments over the lease term using the discount rate implicit in the lease if readily determinable. If the rate implicit is not readily determinable, the Company utilizes its incremental borrowing rate based upon the available information at the lease commencement date. ROU assets are further adjusted for initial direct costs, prepaid rent, or incentives received. Operating lease payments are expensed using the straight-line method as an operating expense over the lease term. The Company’s lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option. Finance lease assets are amortized to depreciation expense using the straight-line method over the shorter of the useful life of the related asset or the lease term. Finance lease payments are bifurcated into (i) a portion that is recorded as interest expense and (ii) a portion that reduces the finance liability associated with the lease. The Company did not have any finance leases as of the date of adoption or during the three months ended March 31, 2022.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
The Company is provided the option to adopt new or revised accounting guidance as an “emerging growth company” under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (“the JOBS Act”) either (1) within the same periods as those otherwise applicable to public business entities, or (2) within the same time periods as private companies, including early adoption when permissible. With the exception of standards the Company elected to early adopt, when permissible, the Company has elected to adopt new or revised accounting guidance within the same time period as private companies.
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers ("ASU 2021-08"). The guidance improves the accounting for acquired revenue contracts with customers in a business combination by addressing diversity in practice and certain inconsistencies in application. Under current GAAP, an acquirer generally recognizes contract assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination at fair value on the acquisition date. The amendments in this update require that an acquirer recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in a business combination in accordance with Topic 606 as if it had originated the contracts. The guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods therein. Early adoption is permitted, including in an interim period for which the financial statements have not been issued. If early adopting in an interim period, the Company is required to apply the amendments to all prior business combinations that have occurred since the beginning of the fiscal year that includes the interim period of application. The Company adopted ASU 2021-08 in October 2021 and the adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases, as subsequently amended (collectively, “ASC 842”), which sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases for both parties to a contract (i.e., lessees and lessors), and replaces the existing guidance in ASC 840, Leases.
The new standard requires lessees to apply a dual approach, classifying leases as either finance or operating leases based on the principle of whether or not the lease is effectively a financed purchase by the lessee. This classification will determine the recognition pattern of lease expense over the term of the lease. In addition, a lessee is required to record (i) a right-of-use asset and a lease liability on its balance sheet for all leases with accounting lease terms of more than 12 months regardless of whether it is an operating or financing lease and (ii) lease expense in its consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss) for operating leases
and amortization and interest expense in its consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss) for financing leases. Leases with a term of 12 months or less may be accounted for similar to existing guidance for operating leases under ASC 840. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842), which added an optional transition method that allows companies to adopt the standard as of the beginning of the year of adoption as opposed to the earliest comparative period presented. This guidance is effective for the Company for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022. Early application is permitted.
The Company adopted ASC 842 during the quarter ended March 31, 2022, with an effective date of January 1, 2022, using the modified retrospective transition approach which uses the effective date as the date of initial application. As a result, prior periods are presented in accordance with the previous guidance in ASC 840. The Company has elected to apply the package of practical expedients requiring no reassessment of whether any expired or existing contracts are or contain leases, the lease classification of any expired or existing leases, or the capitalization of initial direct costs for any existing leases.
Upon its adoption of ASC 842 on January 1, 2022, the Company recognized operating lease right-of-use assets and related operating lease liabilities, which increased the Company’s total assets and total liabilities by $12.2 million and $14.0 million, respectively. The adoption of ASC 842 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss) or statement of cash flows and did not impact retained earnings.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments — Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016-13”), which requires immediate recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets carried at amortized cost, including trade and other receivables, loans and commitments, held-to-maturity debt securities and other financial assets, held at the reporting date to be measured based on historical experience, current conditions and reasonable supportable forecasts. The new credit loss model does not have a minimum threshold for recognition of impairment losses and entities will need to measure expected credit losses on assets that have a low risk of loss. These changes become effective for the Company on January 1, 2023. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of ASU 2016-13 will have on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef